Beware of the innovation of Takbeer in unison
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
The well known scholars of Ahlus-sunnah wal-jammah have examined the takbeer in unison that is done nowadays, and they did not find any evidence to support it, so they ruled that it is an innovation (bidah). introducing a new act of worship or introducing a new manner in which an act of worship is done is regarded as misguidance and an evil innovation. included in the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him): “Whoever introduces anything into this matter of ours (Islam) that is not part of it will have it rejected.” Narrated by Muslim (1718)
The prophet (peace and blessings of allah be upon him) also said: “The most evil matters are those that are newly invented, for every newly invented matter is an innovation and every innovation is misguidance and every misguidance is in the Hellfire…”(Sunan an-nasaa’i 1578)
Ibn al-Haaj, said in his book al-Madhkal (2/285), when discussing the takbeer of Eid: Moreover they recite takbeer in unison,and that is an innovation, because what is prescribed is for each person to say takbeer for himself, and not to say it in unison with others. (736 AH)
Some individuals say that the ruling of the takbeer in unison being declared an innovation is a new ruling and it has not been viewed by the salaf of this nation in this manner. But clearly this statement could not be further from the truth do to numerous of the salaf clarifying innovations done in this method. Ibn al-haaj was born in the 6th generation after hijri and even then these actions were deemed as an innovation as mentioned in the above narration.
What is the Wording of the ‘Eid Takbeer and is it done in Unison?
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih Al-‘Uthaymeen (May Allaah have mercy on him)
Question: May Allaah treat you well. A message has come from the questioner Ridaa ‘Umar, saying: Is the Takbeer on ‘Eid Al-Fitr and ‘Eid Al-Ad’haa after the prayers done in unison or individually? And what is the legislated wording which has come for the Takbeer?
Answer: The Takbeer is on the night of ‘Eid Al-Fitr up until the Imaam comes (to lead the prayer). Its description is that one says:
الله أكبر الله أكبر، لا إله إلا الله، الله أكبر الله أكبر ولله الحمد
Allaahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Laa Ilaha Illa-Allaah; Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Wa Lillaahil-Hamd
Or he says:
الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر، لا إله إلا الله، الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر، ولله الحمد
Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Laa Ilaha Illa-Allaah; Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Wa Lillaahil-Hamd
Or that he says:
الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر، لا إله إلا الله، الله أكبر الله أكبر ولله الحمد
Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Laa Ilaha Illaa-Allaah; Allaahu Akbar Allaahu Akbar, Wa Lillaahil-Hamd
This affair is broad. It begins, on ‘Eid Al-Fitr—as I said—from the setting of the sun on the night of ‘Eid (and extends) up until the Imaam comes.
As for ‘Eid Al-Ad’haa, the Takbeer is from the entrance of the month of Dhul-Hijjah up until the last of the days of At-Tashreeq.
However, it is not legislated on the day of the ‘Eid while the Imaam is delivering the sermon. This is because the people are commanded to listen to the sermon.
As for congregational Takbeer in unison, this is not from the Sunnah. Rather, everyone is to make the Takbeer individually.
With this Takbeer, it is legislated for the men to raise their voices with it. As for the women, they are not to raise their voices; neither in the house nor in the market places. The woman should not raise her voice with it; however, if she is within the house and it makes her more active to say it audibly, then there is no harm.
Translated by Raha ibn Donald Betts
Source: Silsilah Fataawaa Noor ‘Alaa Ad-Darb Tape No. 355
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraheem Aali Ash–Shaykh (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
The takbeer which was done in al-Masjid al-Haram on the day of ‘Eid was where one person or a number of people would sit on the roof of Zamzam and say takbeer, and the people would repeat after them in the mosque. Then al-Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baz denounced this way and said that it was an innovation. What the Shaykh meant was that it was a partial innovation when done in this particular manner. He did not mean that the takbeer itself was an innovation. Some of the common folk of Makkah were upset by this, because they were used to it, and this is the reason why he sent this message. With regard to doing the takbeer in this manner, I do not know of any basis for it. The one who claims that this way is prescribed in shariah (Islamic law) has to bring proof and evidence.
Majmoo’ Fatawa al-‘Allamah Muhammad ibn Ibraheem, 3/127, 128
Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaymeen (rahimahullah) was asked:
It is found in some Masaajid in the city on the day of eid before the prayer that the Imam makes Takbir through the microphone and the congregants make takbir with him. So what is the ruling on this action?
The form that the questioner mentioned was not reported from the Prophet sallahu alayhi wa salam and his Companions. The Sunnah is for everyone to make takbir themselves”
[Fatawa Arakan ul-Islam pg. 305]
He was also asked:
We have in some Masaajid where the Muadhin makes takbir on the microphone and the people repeat it behind him. So is this considered an innovation or is it allowed?
This is an innovation because it is well-known from the guidance of the Prophet (sallahu alayhi wa salam) when it comes to the remembrances that everyone remembers Allah, the Exalted by himself. So it is not necessary (rather prohibited) to leave the guidance of the Prophet sallahu alayhi wa salam and his Companion”.
[Asilah wa Ajwibah fi Salatul Eidayan pg. 31]
Ash-Shaykh Al-Allamah Abdul Azeez Bin Baz (May Allah have mercy on him) stated: What is included in the dhikr that is prescribed on these known days is both takbeer in general and specific takbeer, as is indicated by the Sunnah and the actions of the early Muslims (the salaf). The description of the takbeer that is prescribed is that each Muslim should say takbeer by himself on his own, raising his voice enough so that the people can hear him and follow his example and be reminded by it. As for the innovated takbeer in unison, that is when a group of people — two or more — raise their voices in saying takbeer together, so they start together and end together in unison and in a certain manner.
There is no basis for doing this and there is no evidence to support it, so it is an innovation in the manner of takbeer for which Allah has not sent down any authority. So the one who denounces takbeer done in this manner is in the right, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever introduces something into this matter of ours that is not part of it will have it rejected” (narrated by Muslim), i.e., it is rejected and is not prescribed. And he (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Beware of newly invented matters, for every newly invented matter is an innovation and every innovation is a going astray.” The takbeer in unison is a newly invented matter, so it is an innovation. If what the people do is contrary to shariah then it must be stopped and denounced, because the acts of worship are tawqeefi (i.e., limited to what is mentioned in the Quran and Sunnah) and nothing is prescribed therein except what is indicated by the Quran and Sunnah. As for people’s views and opinions, they cannot be taken as proof if they go against the shar’i evidence. Similarly, acts of worship cannot be proven on the basis of al-masalih al-mursalah (i.e., that which serves the interests of the Muslim community). Acts of worship can only be proven with a text from the Quran or Sunnah, or definitive scholarly consensus.
What is prescribed is for each Muslim to say takbeer in the manner prescribed and proven according to the shar’i evidence, which is to say takbeer individually.
Takbeer in unison was denounced and banned by Ash-Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraheem, the mufti of Saudi Arabia (may Allah have mercy on him), and he issued a fatwa (verdict) concerning that. I have issued more than one fatwa stating that it is not allowed, and a fatwa stating that it is not allowed was also issued by the scholars of the Standing Committee for Academic Research and Issuing Fatwas.
Ash-Shaykh Hammood ibn ‘Abd-Allah al-Tuwaijri (may Allah have mercy on him) wrote an important essay denouncing and banning it, which has been printed and is in circulation. In this essay he quotes sufficient evidence to show that takbeer in unison is not allowed, praise be to Allah. As for what our brother al-Shaykh Ahmad quoted about the actions of ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) and the people in Mina, this does not prove anything, because what he (may Allah be pleased with him) and the people did in Mina does not come under the heading of takbeer in unison; rather it comes under the heading of takbeer that is prescribed, because he (may Allah be pleased with him) raised his voice in takbeer in accordance with the Sunnah and so as to remind the people of it, so they said takbeer, each one on his own. This does not mean that they and ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) agreed to raise their voices in takbeer in unison from beginning to end, as those who say takbeer in unison do nowadays. Thus everything that is narrated from the righteous early generations (may Allah have mercy on them) about the takbeer was all done in the prescribed manner. Anyone who claims something other than that has to produce evidence.
Majmoo’ Fatawa Ibn Baz, 13/20-23
If I said anything correct, then it is from Allāh (subhānahu wa ta’āla), and if I erred, then that is from me and Shaytān.